Breed Profile: San Clemente Goats
An Endangered American Goat Breed With a Unique Genetic Heritage
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Breed: San Clemente goats or San Clemente Island (SCI) goats.
Origin: Introduced in 1875 to San Clemente Island (57 square miles) from Santa Catalina Island, both of which are Channel Islands off the coast of California. Previous origin is unknown, although they may have originated with sheep ranchers that populated Santa Catalina Island in the early 1800s from the Spanish Franciscan Missions in California, probably San Gabriel Arcángel. Goats were often used by sheep ranchers to lead the flock due to their willingness to follow humans. Mission livestock was originally driven up from Mexico, and in 1832 the missions collectively owned 1711 goats.
Although SCI goats were traditionally believed to have been left on the Channel Islands by Spanish settlers approximately 500 years ago, there is no evidence of their presence before the early 1800s. Furthermore, genetic studies have found that San Clemente goats are not closely related to Spanish goats in other parts of the U.S. or Latin America. However, the original mission goats would have descended from settler goats from Spain, possibly early forerunners of the Blanca Celtibérica, Castellana, Extremeña and Murciana breeds.
A Critically Endangered Landrace Breed
History: In the 1970s, there were about 15,000 running feral on San Clemente Island, and they were found to present a threat to native plants and the local ecology. A removal program sold captured animals at stockyards, and hunters drove the population down to 4,500. When the U.S. Navy started shooting goats from helicopters, the Fund for Animals stepped in. They removed most of the population to the mainland for adoption after neutering. Others were picked up direct from transport barges by farms and breeders and these form the basis of our breeding stock. Those remaining on San Clemente Island were exterminated by 1991.
Conservation Status: Critical—approx 750 San Clemente goats remaining worldwide. There is low biodiversity within the breed due to large-scale eradication and inbreeding within isolated populations. Genetically distinct from all other U.S. breeds, they carry unique versions of genes that are valuable to the future sustainability of agriculture.
Characteristics of San Clemente Island Goats
Description: Hardy, small and fine-boned, deer-like appearance, slightly larger than miniature goat breeds, curved-back horns in both sexes that sweep out and twist on mature bucks. The head is long, lean and slightly dished. Ears are narrow with a distinctive crimp, often floppy during first few weeks after birth, and normally held horizontally; long neck, straight back to steep rump and deep chest, slender legs and small hooves; goat wattles absent, slight wispy beard on female and long, dark beard and mane on buck.
Coloring: Red, amber, tan or light brown with characteristic black markings; black face, outer ears, neck, shoulders with pale stripes from eyes to muzzle, pale patches on jaw, inside ears and under neck; black markings on legs and dorsal stripe. In the sixties, a large variety of colors and markings were seen on the island, including cream, solid and painted: these are occasionally seen in current populations.
Weight: Adults 50–120 pounds (23–55 kg).
Height to Withers: Does average 24 in (60 cm); bucks average 28 in (71 cm). Mature buck horns may spread 32 in (81 cm).
Temperament: Alert, gentle, excellent mothers, vigilant with sharp anti-predator reflexes.
Hardy and Adaptable
Adaptability: Since arrival on the mainland the goat breed has proved to be adaptable to a variety of climates, having a wide geographical distribution over U.S. states and western Canadian provinces.
Popular Use: Multipurpose: mainly kept for conservation, brush clearance, sometimes milk and has good potential for meat–current limitation on meat use is due to low population numbers.
It isn’t really San Clemente goat if: ears are pendulous or very upright, nose is convex (Roman).
Owner Quote: “I love everything about these goats—their gorgeous, wild looks and even their wary, deer-like personalities. Earning their trust took a long time, but now I feel almost honored when they eat from my hands and let me pet them. Owning San Clemente Island Goats has encouraged me to learn about goat body language and behavior. I think the bucks’ unique deficiency in scent glands may be one of the biggest selling points for this breed, but extremely good health and easy, safe kidding also make them a pleasure to have.” Catharina, Rio Nido San Clementes.
- The Livestock Conservancy
- San Clemente Island Goat Foundation
- International Dairy Goat Registry
- Ginja, C., Gama, L.T., Martínez, A., Sevane, N., Martin‐Burriel, I., Lanari, M.R., Revidatti, M.A., Aranguren‐Méndez, J.A., Bedotti, D.O., Ribeiro, M.N. and Sponenberg, P., 2017. Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure in Creole goats from the Americas. Animal Genetics, 48(3), 315–329.
Video by Mother Earth News.
Originally published in the January/February 2018 issue of Goat Journal and regularly vetted for accuracy.