Are Goats Smart? Revealing Goat Intelligence

Understanding Domestic Goat Behavior and Cognition

Are Goats Smart? Revealing Goat Intelligence

Reading Time: 10 minutes

Are goats smart? Those of us who keep them get to experience how smart goats are, how quickly they learn, and how much they connect with us. However, it is easy to under- or overestimate the mental powers of animals, and we have to be careful how we interpret what we observe.

Firstly, we want to be sure that we do not dismiss them as insensitive to events going on around them: situations that might distress or excite them. Secondly, we must avoid overestimating their understanding of our requirements of them, so that we avoid frustration when they do not behave as we desire. Finally, they will thrive and perform better if their environment is interesting for them without being stressful. And for that, we need to understand how they perceive their world.

How Goat Minds Think

Goats evolved the kind of intelligence that they needed for living wild in mountainous areas where food was sparse and predators a constant threat. Therefore, they have good discrimination and learning skills to help them find food. Their sharp minds and acute senses allow them to avoid predators. Harsh conditions favored group living, needing good memories and sensitivity to the identity and state of companions and competitors. Over many thousand years of domestication, they have retained most of these abilities, while adapting to living and working with humans.

The inner workings of the goat mind are not an open book for humans to interpret by comparing goat behavior to ours. There is a real danger that we will incorrectly assign motives and emotions that are not experienced by our goats if we attempt to humanize them. Our tendency to anthropomorphize (assign human characteristics to animals) can lead us astray when assessing animals’ behavior. In order to gain an objective view of how goats think, cognitive scientists are providing concrete data to back our observations. Here, I will look at several cognition studies that provide evidence for some of the goat smarts we see regularly on the farm.

goat-climbing-tree
Photo credit: Jacqueline Macou/Pixabay

How Smart Are Goats at Learning?

Goats are notably good at working out how to open gates and access hard-to-reach food. This skill has been tested by training goats to manipulate a specially designed feed dispenser. Goats needed to first pull a rope, then lift a lever to access the treat. Most of the goats learned the task within 13 trials and one within 22. Then, they remembered how to do it 10 months later [1]. This confirms our experience that goats will readily learn complex tasks for a food reward.

smart-goat-solves-puzzle
Goat demonstrating steps to operate the feed dispenser: (a) pull lever, (b) lift lever, and (c) eating the reward. Red arrows indicate the direction required to complete the action. Image credit: Briefer, E.F., Haque, S., Baciadonna, L. and McElligott, A.G., 2014. Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task. Frontiers in Zoology, 11, 20. CC BY 2.0. See also video of this task.

Pitfalls to Hinder Learning

Goats are highly motivated to consume feed because, as herbivores, they need a good deal of it to support their metabolism. In addition, we must bear in mind that goats are rather impulsive. Their eagerness to consume may override their training and good sense. Goats were trained to go around the side of an opaque plastic cylinder to retrieve a treat. While most of them had no difficulty learning the task, the situation changed when a transparent cylinder was used. Over half the goats pushed against the cylinder trying to reach the treat directly through the plastic in every other trial [2]. Transparent barriers are not a feature that nature has equipped them to deal with, and this is a good example of impulse over intelligence that we need to bear in mind.

Video of task from Langbein J. 2018. Motor self-regulation in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) in a detour-reaching task. PeerJ 6:e5139 © 2018 Langbein CC BY. Accurate trials are when goat accesses treat through the opening in the cylinder. Inaccurate is when goat attempts to reach treat through the plastic.

Other factors that might hinder learning could be as simple as the layout of the facility. Goats may be naturally reluctant to enter a confined space, such as a corner or dead-end, where they could get trapped by an aggressor. Indeed, when reaching through a barrier would have meant entering a corner, goats learned faster to go around it to access feed [3].

How Smart Are Goats at Finding Food?

Healthy goats are alert and sensitive to their surroundings, as a survival strategy against predators. Some are also great observers and skilled at watching where you hide food. When goats could see where experimenters had hidden food in cups, they chose the baited cups. When the cups were moved around while the food was still hidden, only a few goats followed the baited cup and chose it. Their performance improved when the cups were different colors and sizes [4]. A few goats were able to work out which cups were baited when the experimenter showed them the cups that were empty [5].

finding-hidden-food
Goat choosing hidden treat uncovered by experimenter. Photo courtesy of FBN (Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology). Click here for video of transposition task.

In these experiments, some goats performed a lot better than others. Another study showed that this could be down to personality differences. Scientists study animal personality by recording differences in behavior that are consistent for the individual over time, but vary between individuals. Most animals lie somewhere in between such extremes as bold and shy, or sociable and loner, proactive or passive. Some goats tend to explore and investigate objects while others remain still and watch what is going on. More socially-oriented individuals may be distracted from tasks because they are looking for their companions.

Researchers found that less explorative goats were better at choosing the baited cups when cups were transposed, presumably because they were more observant. On the other hand, less sociable goats performed better in tasks that required choice of food containers according to color or shape, perhaps because they were less distracted [6]. Bear in mind that goats tend to choose locations where they have found food before, but some focus on the features of the container more than others.

Are Goats Smart Enough to Play Computer Games?

Goats can discriminate rather detailed shapes on a computer screen and work out which shape out of a choice of four will deliver a reward. Most can work this out by themselves by trial and error. Once they get the hang of it, they are faster at learning which symbol delivers the reward when presented with a different set of symbols. This shows that learning a task promotes their learning of other similar tasks [7]. They can also categorize shapes and learn that different shapes of the same category deliver the reward [8]. They memorize solutions to particular trials for several weeks [9].

smart-goats-figure-out-what-symbols-deliver
Goat before the computer screen used to present a choice of four symbols, one of which delivered a reward. Photo courtesy of FBN, taken by Thomas Häntzschel/Nordlicht.

Do Goats Have Social Skills?

In many circumstances, goats favor their own investigations, rather than learning from others [1, 10]. But as social animals, surely they learn from one another too. Strangely, there have been few studies of goats learning from their own kind to date. In one study, goats watched a companion choose between different feed locations that were re-baited between trials. These tended to target where they had seen their companions eating [11]. In another, kids followed the food choice of the doe that raised them by not eating the plants that she avoided [12].

Goats are interested in what other goats are looking at, as it may be a source of food or danger. When a single goat’s attention was caught by an experimenter, herd-mates that could see the goat, but not the experimenter, turned around to follow their companion’s gaze [13]. Some goats follow human pointing gestures [13, 14] and demonstrations [3]. Goats are sensitive to human body posture and prefer to approach humans who are paying them attention [15–17] and smiling [18]. They also approach humans for help when they cannot access a food source or beg with distinct body language [19–21]. I will cover research on how goats interact with humans in a future post.

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Dwarf goats at FBN research facility. Photo credit: Thomas Häntzschel/Nordlicht, courtesy of FBN.

Social Recognition and Tactics

Goats recognize one another by looks [22, 23], voice [24, 25], and odor [26, 22]. They combine different senses to commit each companion to memory [27], and they have long-term memory of individuals [28]. They are sensitive to the emotion in other goats’ facial expressions [29] and bleats [30], which can affect their own emotions [30].

Goats may plan their tactics by assessing what others can see, showing they can take another individual’s perspective. One experiment recorded goats’ strategies when one food source was visible and the other hidden from a dominant competitor. Goats that had received aggression from their competitor went for the hidden piece. However, those that had not received aggression went for the visible piece first, perhaps hoping to get a larger share by accessing both sources [31].

buttercups-sanctuary-herd
Goats at Buttercups Sanctuary, where behavior studies are carried out in a familiar setting.

What Do Goats Like? Keeping Goats Happy

Animals with sharp minds need the kind of stimulation that is fulfilling without leading to frustration. When free ranging, goats get this through foraging, roaming, play, and family interaction. In confinement, studies have shown that goats benefit from both physical enrichment, such as climbing platforms and cognitive challenges, like the computerized four-choice test [32]. When goats were given the choice of using the computer puzzle as opposed to free delivery, some goats actually chose to work for their reward [33]. We need to ensure that all personalities and abilities are catered for when choosing pen features that are fulfilling without inducing stress.

physical-and-cognitive-challenge
Goats enjoy a physical and mental challenge, like this pile of logs.

Main Source: Nawroth, C. et al., 2019. Farm Animal Cognition—Linking Behavior, Welfare and Ethics. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6.

References:

  1. Briefer, E.F., Haque, S., Baciadonna, L. and McElligott, A.G., 2014. Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task. Frontiers in Zoology, 11, 20.
  2. Langbein, J., 2018. Motor self-regulation in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) in a detour-reaching task. PeerJ, 6, 5139.
  3. Nawroth, C., Baciadonna, L. and McElligott, A.G., 2016. Goats learn socially from humans in a spatial problem-solving task. Animal Behaviour, 121, 123–129.
  4. Nawroth, C., von Borell, E. and Langbein, J., 2015. Object permanence in the dwarf goat (Capra aegagrus hircus): Perseveration errors and the tracking of complex movements of hidden objects. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 167, 20–26.
  5. Nawroth, C., von Borell, E. and Langbein, J., 2014. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries). PLoS ONE, 9(4), 93534
  6. Nawroth, C., Prentice, P.M. and McElligott, A.G., 2016. Individual personality differences in goats predict their performance in visual learning and non-associative cognitive tasks. Behavioural Processes, 134, 43–53
  7. Langbein, J., Siebert, K., Nürnberg, G. and Manteuffel, G., 2007. Learning to learn during visual discrimination in group housed dwarf goats (Capra hircus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 121(4), 447–456.
  8. Meyer, S., Nürnberg, G., Puppe, B. and Langbein, J., 2012. The cognitive capabilities of farm animals: categorisation learning in dwarf goats (Capra hircus). Animal Cognition, 15(4), 567–576.
  9. Langbein, J., Siebert, K. and Nuernberg, G., 2008. Concurrent recall of serially learned visual discrimination problems in dwarf goats (Capra hircus). Behavioural Processes, 79(3), 156–164.
  10. Baciadonna, L., McElligott, A.G. and Briefer, E.F., 2013. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task. PeerJ, 1, 172.
  11. Shrader, A.M., Kerley, G.I.H., Kotler, B.P. and Brown, J.S., 2006. Social information, social feeding, and competition in group-living goats (Capra hircus). Behavioral Ecology, 18(1), 103–107.
  12. Glasser, T.A., Ungar, E.D., Landau, S.Y., Perevolotsky, A., Muklada, H. and Walker, J.W., 2009. Breed and maternal effects on the intake of tannin-rich browse by juvenile domestic goats (Capra hircus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 119(1–2), 71–77.
  13. Kaminski, J., Riedel, J., Call, J. and Tomasello, M., 2005. Domestic goats, Capra hircus, follow gaze direction and use social cues in an object choice task. Animal Behaviour, 69(1), 11–18.
  14. Nawroth, C., Martin, Z.M., McElligott, A.G., 2020. Goats Follow Human Pointing Gestures in an Object Choice Task. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 915.
  15. Nawroth, C., von Borell, E. and Langbein, J., 2015. ‘Goats that stare at men’: dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to human head orientation, but do not spontaneously use head direction as a cue in a food-related context. Animal Cognition, 18(1), 65–73.
  16. Nawroth, C., von Borell, E. and Langbein, J., 2016. ‘Goats that stare at men’—revisited: do dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to eye visibility and head direction of a human? Animal Cognition, 19(3), 667–672.
  17. Nawroth, C. and McElligott, A.G., 2017. Human head orientation and eye visibility as indicators of attention for goats (Capra hircus). PeerJ, 5, 3073.
  18. Nawroth, C., Albuquerque, N., Savalli, C., Single, M.-S., McElligott, A.G., 2018. Goats prefer positive human emotional facial expressions. Royal Society Open Science, 5, 180491.
  19. Nawroth, C., Brett, J.M. and McElligott, A.G., 2016. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task. Biology Letters, 12(7), 20160283.
  20. Langbein, J., Krause, A., Nawroth, C., 2018. Human-directed behaviour in goats is not affected by short-term positive handling. Animal Cognition, 21(6), 795–803.
  21. Mastellone, V., Scandurra, A., D’Aniello, B., Nawroth, C., Saggese, F., Silvestre, P., Lombardi, P., 2020. Long-Term Socialization with Humans Affects Human-Directed Behavior in Goats. Animals, 10, 578.
  22. Keil, N.M., Imfeld-Mueller, S., Aschwanden, J. and Wechsler, B., 2012. Are head cues necessary for goats (Capra hircus) in recognising group members? Animal Cognition, 15(5), 913–921.
  23. Ruiz-Miranda, C.R., 1993. Use of pelage pigmentation in the recognition of mothers in a group by 2- to 4-month-old domestic goat kids. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 36(4), 317–326.
  24. Briefer, E. and McElligott, A.G., 2011. Mutual mother–offspring vocal recognition in an ungulate hider species (Capra hircus). Animal Cognition, 14(4), 585–598.
  25. Briefer, E.F. and McElligott, A.G., 2012. Social effects on vocal ontogeny in an ungulate, the goat, Capra hircus. Animal Behaviour, 83(4), 991–1000.
  26. Poindron, P., Terrazas, A., de la Luz Navarro Montes de Oca, M., Serafín, N. and Hernández, H., 2007. Sensory and physiological determinants of maternal behavior in the goat (Capra hircus). Hormones and Behavior, 52(1), 99–105.
  27. Pitcher, B.J., Briefer, E.F., Baciadonna, L. and McElligott, A.G. ,2017. Cross-modal recognition of familiar conspecifics in goats. Royal Society Open Science, 4(2), 160346.
  28. Briefer, E.F., Torre, M.P. de la and McElligott, A.G., 2012. Mother goats do not forget their kids’ calls. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 279(1743), 3749–3755.
  29. Bellegarde, L.G.A., Haskell, M.J., Duvaux-Ponter, C., Weiss, A., Boissy, A. and Erhard, H.W., 2017. Face-based perception of emotions in dairy goats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 193, 51–59.
  30. Baciadonna, L., Briefer, E.F., Favaro, L., McElligott, A.G., 2019. Goats distinguish between positive and negative emotion-linked vocalisations. Frontiers in Zoology, 16, 25.
  31. Kaminski, J., Call, J. and Tomasello, M., 2006. Goats’ behaviour in a competitive food paradigm: Evidence for perspective taking? Behaviour, 143(11), 1341–1356.
  32. Oesterwind, S., Nürnberg, G., Puppe, B. and Langbein, J., 2016. Impact of structural and cognitive enrichment on the learning performance, behavior and physiology of dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 177, 34–41.
  33. Langbein, J., Siebert, K. and Nürnberg, G., 2009. On the use of an automated learning device by group-housed dwarf goats: Do goats seek cognitive challenges? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 120(3–4), 150–158.

Leading photo credit: Thomas Häntzschel © Nordlicht/FBN

Originally published in the November/December 2020 issue of Goat Journal and regularly vetted for accuracy.

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